Traditionally, water mitigation from the walls of the caves, tunnels, canals, elevators, etc. provided by
continuous placement of polymer or resin based membranes (b).
On (a) shown usual type of cave' leakages through the cracks lined up on the area of joining
wall with ceiling. In this case both membrane and concrete were damaged by excessive tectonics
movements pressure. Leakages through the electric outlets, anchors for the shelves, ladders
and doors are very common too.
On (c) shown wall' cross section with the tensions caused by the soil pressure and distributed
onto the membrane surface.
The defects could be circumstantial, but always appears between points "3" and "4" where the
sliding mass of the soil changing its vertical pressure on horizontal rupturing tensions.
Therefore, the smoother surface of membrane the lower coefficient of soil sliding friction (CSF)
resulting in faster sliding down that causes faster growing of rupturing tensions. It means,
without membrane it may happen much later or never because of CSF of concrete surface is lower.
A "0" is a point of negative tensions of rupture.
From "1" to "2" is a beginning
zone of horizontal tensions
At "3" to "4" is the zone of high horizontal
tensions to tear apart the membrane and
to rupture concrete through the thickness.
At "4" it is the zone of minimal tensions.
A"7" is a point of vertical
Fast and reliable method to stop leakages is a "Welding of Concrete" by KALMATRON KF-C by pressured
streaming of KF-C into the source of leakage even under hydraulic pressure.
On "e" shown glassy solid patch of KF-C strewed into the active leakage. On "f" is the same part of the cave
"a" after concrete welding. That technology of concrete repair doesn't need curing or later attention.
Whitening of concrete around KF-C patches is a vivid example of drying area stopped water absorption.
A fragment "f"of winery cave
repaired by KALMATRON KF-C
Comparing "a" and "c" by locations of the leakages and the points of
critical tensions on the wall of winery cave results in its coincidence.
WELDED LEAKAGES SHOWN ON "A"